antiandrogen competes for androgen receptor binding and acts as
an androgen receptor antagonist, i.e. blocking or interfering with
the actions of androgen hormones. Androgens regulate differentiation
and development of male genitalia; initiate and maintain spermatogenesis;
stimulate sexual hair development; regulate sexual behavior; and
stimulate of bone growth.
to a synthetic antiandrogen, such as flutamide, during sexual differentiation
and puberty can alter sexual development. Antiandrogenic alterations
include the demasculinization and feminization of male offspring,
and the masculinization and defeminization of female offspring.
Male rats exposed to an anti-androgen during sexual differentiation
in utero display reproductive malformations such as shortened anogenital
distance, retained nipples, and cleft phallus with hypospadias.
and fungicides are
known antiandrogens. In utero exposure to these compounds during
sexual differentiation in rats induces some of the reproductive
malformations noted above.